Beyond PMO Consulting

"welcome to my personal blog," Ammar W Mango

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    Organizational Project Management Consultant, using profession as a platform for learning beyond just work. My passion is learning more about self, people, universe, and God.
    I am into Religion, Meditation, Yoga, and Tai Chi. I love learning about human behavior and motivation.
    I am a gourmand who loves healthy food and following latest research into health and natural healing and remedies. I jog and swim whenever I get a chance.
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Are you a group of professionals doing business or a business hiring a group of professionals?

Posted by Ammar Mango on April 7, 2014

There is a big difference between the two types of organizations, and it is important that you know what type of organization are you in.  The answer should affect how projects are managed and how you do business.  Actually the answer to this question has profound effects on the organization structure itself.

An organization that hires professionals found an opportunity and pursued it.  If the business climate changes, and the organization lands a different profession to benefit from more, then it would switch to another business, if it can.

On the other hand, a group of professionals doing business is a totally different ball game.  These professionals do something well, and they can make money based on that talent or capacity.  They might refine their modus operandus but they would not switch business.  They have a professional identity that they would not want to change.  So, even if switching to selling a different service yields more money, they are not interested as they are in a different profession.

Which one is better? well, this is not a good question.  It is not about better.  It is about understanding the differences between the value offered by each type, and the way each should do business.

A business hiring professionals is keen on the project aspects of quality; like finishing on time on budget, within scope.  This is mostly how they would define quality.  In this type of company, project management is key and outweighs technical aspects.  For example, even if a technical expert has a better idea, implementing it will take a lower priority than finishing withing the triple constraints of time, cost, and scope.  In this type of business, building technical capacity is hard.  Technical people will find it hard to build their career, as their ability to deliver faster outweighs their ability to build more or better product.  Project Managers on the other hand will be able to develop their careers better in this kind of company.  Department managers are more of resource managers, who are responsible for ensuring their staff deliver within the project constraints, but are not as concerned about building their staff abilities, or improving the product they are delivering.  Usually construction companies are of this type of organization.  Also, manufacturing companies.  While most software development and consulting rarely fit in this category, some of them actually do.

A client who knows exactly what they want should look for such a supplier.  Or if the client has expertise in the product they want and require hands to deliver.  Also, if the product or service sought is well defined and no need for much creativity.  A client should apt in such cases for the business organization as they are very efficient, usually, in delivering fast and to the requirements, and at a reasonable cost.

If we look at a group of professionals doing business, the picture is drastically different.  This type of organization has a technical edge of some sort, and they focus on building that edge, and providing value through it to the client.  This organization is sought for innovation and coming up with something different than what is out there.  Also, when the client is relying on the professional expertise of the supplier.  finally if client needs a custom solution that requires an original architecture, if you will.

A group of professionals doing business customize every experience they undertake, and see it as an opportunity to provide a better product or service.  While sticking to the schedule, budget, and scope are important, they are not the top priority.  The top priority is providing the customer with a product that reflects technical competence of the organization and hence the value.  In this type of organization, changes are more easily accepted, and even welcomed.  They are freely and openly discussed with clients who in turn should be open and willing to pay for them, given they provide value that outweighs the cost.

In this organization structure, the department managers are partners with the project manager in leading the project.  this makes the job of the project manager much harder.  If the department manager has a new idea, it might cause major project delays.  While the department manager does not care as he or she wants product quality, the project manager has to keep an eye on his or her responsibilities, which are time, cost, and scope sensitive.  To the chagrin of the Project Manager, usually product quality overrules project quality.  Remember that a client hiring this type of organization is after the product quality that the department managers or subject matter experts are offering.  An example of this type of organization is Architectural, Law, and Medical firms.  Also, design companies and consulting companies fit this type of organization.  At least most of them.

Finally, from an organizational perspective, a business hiring professionals should put lots of authority with the PMO, and less with department managers.  A matrix or projectized organization structure is usually a good setup for such an organization.

While a group of professionals should balance the PMO and the department managers power and allow for and even encourage healthy conflict between the two.  The balanced matrix, or strong matrix organization structure can work for such organization.  However attention should be paid that there is actually balance between departments and technical competence on one side, and the PMO on the other.

Many organizations have identity problems, caused by being unable to answer this question.  This leads to failure of the organization to satisfy clients, as clients would not be able to know what type of value they should expect.  This leads to customer dissatisfaction and disappointment and possibly project failure.



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Operations and Projects; back together again…

Posted by Ammar Mango on February 9, 2014

…And that is OK.

Many project management practitioners always complained in the past of the lack of distinction between project work and operations work of an organization.  A case in point is the hand over phase agony of turning the completed deliverables to its owners to become the responsibility of operations team, vs project team.  This was a big problem and caused many project failures, and it still would be a problem if it is still handled the same way today.  Luckily, we are seeing organizations avoiding this pitfall, and becoming more mature in their ability to organize project work into projects, and to recognize when other work has to be left for operations.  However, this is not the end of the story.

Today, the line between operations and projects is becoming blurry again, but in other, more positive ways.  For example, the PMO is becoming more interfaced with other operational departments of the organization, like finance, HR, procurement, etc.  Also, the PMO, even though it is handling projects, it is being recognized more and more as the operational function that it is.  While some PMO’s are temporary, serving a project or a program, most organizational PMOs are permanent, serving the organization on an ongoing basis. So, this makes it more an operational function.

With that recognition by the organization, the PMO is becoming more accepted among departmental managers as a function of the organization like other functions.  Of course I am talking about organizations who were able to successfully implement their PMO and sustain it.  Because those who are still struggling are another story altogether, and there are still quite a few out there.

Back to our sustained, value adding PMO.  There is a trend today for PMOs to step outside the “projects management” into two important areas: The first is portfolio management.  While it is theoretically one of the key functions of a PMO, in real practice, most PMOs do not handle most of the defined portfolio management functions.  The second area is operations.  Many PMOs will have to step up and handle procurement, financial, and HR issues, in cooperation with the respective responsible departments.  The standard way that these departments handle these functions are more geared to operations, and in many cases are not sufficient from a projects portfolio perspective.  This is why it will become essential for the PMO to step out of its traditional boundaries into operational areas.

For this to happen, more leeway should be given tot he PMO to get involved in operational issues, outside the PMO jurisdiction, and to be empowered to interface with other functions and seek solutions to common cross functional issues.  Moreover, the PMO can play a leading role in such improvement initiatives as it has a unique cross functional perspective of the organization and its “value chain” if you will, that other functions might not have.

Also, the character and capabilities of the PMO head will play a big role in the realization of benefits from such PMO involvement.  The PMO manager  needs to be a veteran with the conviction and capabilities to make such interfaces a reality, rally the organization towards improvements, and sustain these improvements.

This is a tough quest for the PMO and might prove more challenging than it seems.  The executives see the PMO as primarily tasked with handling the project portfolio (usually billable work) and keep that as focus, over any internal improvement initiative.  So, the PMO manager  must strike a balance and address change in perception and behavior required to sync operations and projects in the overall corporate scheme.

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Is Project Management Moving Away from Analytic Models?

Posted by Ammar Mango on January 23, 2014

Summary:  When I learned Project Management in Undergraduate and Graduate studies, I remember scheduling taking a center stage.  We were taught everything about scheduling, its models, relationships, PERT, CPM, PDM, dependencies, etc.  Today, most projects are succeeding or failing, for reasons other than how “perfect” or “imperfect” the project schedule is.  Furthermore, I feel that the love that engineers have to the scheduling and its intricacies has  counterproductive effect on the project.  This is why the role of scheduling and its value needs serious and brave reconsideration.

When I teach project management for PMP candidates, you can immediately see how engineers and programmers love the part related to scheduling; it is common sense to them, and puts them in their comfort zone: 1+1=2.  However, in the context of the project management knowledge, scheduling techniques are taking less and less percentage over the years.  The domains of knowledge of project management are being enriched in the areas of stakeholders management, soft skills, leadership, risk management, etc, and less attention is given to scheduling.  This is important as project management is about value, people, and interactions, beyond what a scheduling model can describe. In Project Management, one of the most detrimental things a manager could do to the project is to assume that the project models, including the schedule, to be the absolute truth.  Models are there to help us comprehend reality, not to replace reality.  So, to rely completely on analytic models in project management is like fooling oneself that everything in project management is as simple as a formula to calculate the forward pass. Understanding the way of thinking of your key stakeholder, or making sure they can imagine the value the project will deliver might be more important than any schedule or cost baseline.  Also, a market that is stalling, or a cash-flow that is dwindling due to external factors, might not show on your schedule or cost forecast if you do not stay alert to what the world is telling you about the project and its environment. GIGO my professor used to tell me about models: Garbage In Garbage Out.  What we put in the model, and what we know about what the model cannot represent might be more important than the model itself.  KISS another professor used to tell us: Keep IT Simple (lets skip the last S), and definitely this is more relevant today than any other time.  if we start complicating models, then changing them will be become very hard, especially in the fast paced world of today’s projects. So, what is a project manager to do? in addition to the above advice, it is important to stay close to the stakeholders, get used to working in a grey zone of “mushy” information that is not a product of a cast in stone analytic model.  This includes “feeling” the vibes from the stakeholder, learning to build decisions on bet available information, not just data.  Also, keep your toughest critics close, so they help you improve on your plans.

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2013 in review

Posted by Ammar Mango on January 13, 2014

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 5,400 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 5 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Get your Project Dynamics in order

Posted by Ammar Mango on December 28, 2013

tempballs“Managing projects is about managing the competing demands.” is a statement to be expected in any project management course.  Unfortunately this statement is not completely accurate and can be greatly misleading.

Competing demands are defined as: Time, Cost, Scope, Quality, and Human resources.  They represent most of what we call the “Project Management Knowledge Areas” as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).  The PMBOK is the defacto standard for project management published by the Project Management Institute (PMI).

Managing projects is no longer about Time, Scope, and Budget.  Neither is it about the competing demands or any of the PMBOK knowledge areas.  It is more about using these tools to create and preserve the right “Project Dynamics” to ensure a successful project.

“Project Dynamics” is a term that you will not find in theory books, and used here for the lack of any other term.  Project Dynamics is a group of forces affecting a project.  So, they vary from one project to the other.  While most projects share similar project dynamics, their effect, importance, and extent vary widely by project.  Project Dynamics in sync result in project success.

Project Dynamics are: Sought value, history, driving forces, circumstances, and emotions.  All of them are perceived through human eye.  So, human perception is the key for project success.  It is through perception that we judge success after all.  This perception is affected greatly by these dynamics, and more importantly their interactions.

Let us look at some of these dynamics and what they mean:

Sought Value is the answer to the question: “Why are we doing this project?” Remember that the true answer to this question will vary from one stakeholder to the other.  So we need to know and understand the answer from all the key stakedholers.  We need to also know that the first answer we get from the stakeholders is the wrong one.  For example: “We want to upgrade our financial system.” This is not a real value of the project.  The real value is the answer to the question “Why do we want to upgrade?”

Driving Forces is another of the project dynamics.  Driving Forces are the fuel that make the project move, so to speak.  This includes people who want this project to happen, it includes a strategic theme, any legal requirements, cash, resources, technology.  It includes anything that is pushing (like resources and cash) or pulling (like strategic goals) the project forward)

Circumstances include the company, culture, market situation, and the surrounding effects that can hinder or support the project along its way.  For example, I know a friend who created a great business solution about three years before the market demanded it.  His company went bankrupt.  Not because what he sold was not value, but because it was not there at the right time.  In this case it was there too early.

Another important Project Dynamic is Emotions.  Emotions are a big driving force for us humans, and since projects are about people, you can be assured that the emotions of the stakeholders involved in the project play a big part in meeting its objectives.  A team that lost its morale, or does not have faith will fail even the best ideas.  Also, if the project does not arise an emotion in stakeholders, it will be hard to push them to pay for it, or spend time on it, or support it.

There are other project dynamics but I tried to mention here some of the common ones.

Now, let us see how project dynamics, not competing demands (time, scope, budget, etc) affect project success:

So, to say Cost is a key determinant of project success would be a bit unrealistic.  In reality, it is the perception that the value received is well worth the cost paid, and that the perception that the cost paid was justified.  So, even if project cost goes over budget, stakeholders will deem the project successful if the value is well worth the cost paid, and if stakeholders believe that the overrun in cost was justified.  It is Project Dynamics that deemed the project successful.

Same thing applies to scope.  So what if you do not perform the scope defined in the original plan? The plan keeps getting modified anyways.  And we know that after starting the project, we might find that what we really need is totally different than what we originally scoped.  Again, Project Dynamics determine how the story of the project will go; is it a success or a failure.   In this case, if stakeholders see they are getting more of the value they seek from the new scope, and that the change in scope is justified, and the Driving Forces (another dynamic) behind the project (like capital, sponsorship, strategic direction, etc) allow such change, then the project can and probably will succeed.

Most practitioners with a a healthy dose of real project management have already figured this much out, that the project dynamics, and understanding how they interact, trumps the old and generic “time- cost- scope” triangle of competing demands, any day and any time, as determinants of project success.

So what is the role of Project Management processes in this complex project environment? The Project Management Processes are a tool to help us manage these project dynamics.  They are not a goal in themselves.  So, creating a project schedule is not a goal of the project.  It might be a requirement from the PMO, but only because experience shows that having a  schedule baseline improve our chances of finishing on time.  Not because we must have a schedule as an output of the project.  We need to have a schedule, to help us succeed in our project.

Consider the project management processes as tools in the warrior’s (Project Manager’s) armor.  Which tool to use, when and in what combination can only be effective after understanding the dynamics of the project, and accordingly manage.

Many companies are building their own Project Management Methodologies based on international standards.  These companies should understand the project dynamics around their projects and organization, and accordingly build their methodology around these dynamics, not around generic processes.  This is a true measure of organizational project management maturity, more than any generic processes or methodologies.

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To Jump or not to Jump…

Posted by Ammar Mango on December 19, 2013

In consulting, there is a common saying: “If the customer says “Jump” you say “how hi?”.” And if you are really good in playing your role, you say it while jumping.  This conformity to rules never works for some.  They will not jump.  Unless they feel inclined to.  They will not jump just because the role says jump.  This usually brings anger, surprise, and sometimes retaliation from audience.  It is a small price, to these non conformers, for being original, and for being willing to dance to a different tune.

Most people have accepted a role and a way of behavior based on that role, and expect you to do the same; play the role, be the role, and act accordingly.  Many will even be angry with you when you do not perform to their preconceived script.  Some on the other hand shrug their shoulders and refuse to play.  

In the same context, presentations are called “dog and pony” shows for a reason; participants and presenter come in with preset roles and expectations, and each is supposed to play the role.  Some refuse to play or be the role.  Some conform out of fear of losing status, clients, money, or out of fear of being rejected by others.  However proponents of this “originality” school say that new things come from those who decided not to jump, and do something totally unexpected.  They set the trend.

It is a choice everyone makes at every moment and in every interaction.  So the next time you hear “JUMP,” it is your choice! 





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How do I prepare a fifteen minute presentation of a project business case?

Posted by Ammar Mango on November 25, 2013

This is a good question I got and thought to share the answer with everyone, as I get asked this question often.

The most important thing is to start with “drawing a big picture:” so, before you start working on content so diligently, stop and ask your self the following questions.  Take your time answering them and do not rush them so to get to the “important stuff” which is preparing the presentation.  This IS the most important thing in a presentation, not the content.  So here are the questions:

1. What is the context? 

– What is the purpose of the presentation?

– Who is attending?  their background, ages,interests, influence?

– What are your goals from the presentation?

– What are the goals of those attending?

– What does an “excellent presentation” look like?

– What is the ideal outcome your and your audience and stakeholders want from the presentation?

– Are you presenting alone, or is your presentation part of a bigger longer presentation?  what you say it will be different based on this.

2. find a theme for your presentation.  To do that here are some tips:

– What is it you want to tell these people?

– What do you want them to do?

– Can you state the above in a simple few words sentence?  can you present it early, and reiterate it so it sticks?

– how hard is it to convince? are you driving a tough bargain?  or is it an “easy sell”?

– What are the main objections and questions your audience will have to prevent them from “buying” your proposal?  do you have convincing answers for them (if you are not convinced chances are they will not be convinced)?

3. Time to develop an outline

– Go now to Powerpoint

– Start creating an outline (table of content) for your presentation.  do not be traditional.  focus on what they want to hear, do not put “filler” information, like formalities, useless info, etc.  When  you put the outline, consider that each slide answers an important question, concern, or interest for you audience to accept your proposal.  otherwise, it is a waste of time.

– A good generic outline for a business case, brief one, is:

  • Title,
  • Introduce yourself (if you are good, you can do this in a creative way that relates to your project and get people attention),
  • Goal from presentation,
  • Agenda (with minutes for each item), here you should tell your audience if you want them to wait until you finish or to ask you as you go.  it depends on how good they and you are in managing the time.
  • General info about the project, who what where why when (very briefly)
  • Draw a picture of what life will be like when the project will be completed (value from the project)
  • Why it is the best alternative (you can either focus on your project, or on subliminally and tactfully show how other alternatives do not work as well.)
  • Challenges expected (HERE BE CAREFUL, you can use this to show them thatyou know their concerns and that they will be addressed properly).  Be brief unless it is a tough sell and they are really concerned.
  • Reiterate value briefly but convincingly
  • Tell them how they can continue the discussion or get more info
  • Ask them for action.  This can be titled NEXT STEPS, WHAT IS NEEDED, etc.
  • Q and A

4.  Now get the “beef” for your presentation.  the less words the better, the more graphs and pictures the better


– Do not apologize for  anything while presenting.  you look weak.  never apologize for not being prepared, for not having info, nothing what soever

– Be confident. breathe and smile.  it helps

– Do not read the slides.  put a word on the slide or a picture that is inviting, then talk about it

That s it .  Good luck

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Because the contract is not enough

Posted by Ammar Mango on November 10, 2013

I always get asked this question from trainees in my project management courses: “Why do we need a project charter or a project plan if we have a contract?”

There are many, not one reason.

First, the Need for Clarity. Contracts are made as legal binding documents for legal purposes.  The project charter and plan are not developed for legal purposes, but to ensure delivery.  While the two parties of the contract are set in the contract as adversaries (almost), the plan is more of a collaboration between both parties to get the work completed successfully, as a team, not adversaries.

Second, the contract might not have the necessary details to clarify the scope and other plan elements.  It is an agreement between two business parties to get the project completed, but the technical people and the project manager who lead this effort need now to meet to get the work relationship defined from a work perspective, not just business perspective.  While I am a big proponent of project managers and team being business savvy, but business savvy alone does not get the job done.

Third, the plan in the contract usually has key elements of the plan at a high level but not a workable plan.  To organize work , the project needs a workable plan that everyone can follow.  Organization and structure is needed to get the job done and what is in the contract of the plan is not enough to do that.

Fourth, the client needs to be involved in this plan and not just be a referee or a judge.  Unfortunately, many clients assume that they have now a constitution (the contract) and it is time to lay judgment on the supplier based on the constitution, so to speak.  In reality the worst thing the client can do to lose value from the work is become a judge.  A client is a partner, who treats a supplier as a partner, to ensure mutual benefit and win-win relationship.  A client is usually afraid that being a partner will make him vulnerable if the supplier does not perform.  With this kind of attitude, the project cannot be heading towards creating value, even if it formally gets completed.

That’s it for now.  What do you think?

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Social Responsibility, Again

Posted by Ammar Mango on October 17, 2013

It is dangerous when social responsibility becomes an occasional task that we get over with; like a charity dinner, a charitable donation, or  a volunteer job.  with this type of definition, companies and individuals feel they have a carte blanche to be irresponsible socially in how they deal in business. Is this becoming a trend? and if yes, what is the solution? and what is my role as an individual to reverse this mentality?

We all hear the complaint about corporate responsibility statements, where companies say something and do the exact opposite.  One such global company I dealt with has in their published statement the following: “We have a responsibility to be an active member of the communities in which we live and work.” I had a phone interview with their HR manager about a year ago, about a capacity building project in one of their middle eastern locations.  During the interview, I raised the need to build awareness in an important ethical challenge that might need to be addressed.  Her answer was clear and firm “If I was in my headquarters, I would agree with you, but in this country, I have a job to get this done and leave, without getting into their cultural issues.” Is this speaking from both sides of the mouth? or an ill informed employee about her company CSR statement.  Both are dangerous, as she is a ranking director in her company.

There is also at the individual level:  We see on the news charities and events sponsored by individuals who give generously to a good cause.  A closer look at how they carry their business might not reveal the same level of corporate responsibility. Of course not all, but a considerable some.

Social responsibility should become a way of life.  A way to assess our daily interactions with the world around us.  If some feel they are too small as individuals to make a difference then probably they are.  Not because of their position or rank, but because of how they think.  If you think you are too small to make a difference then you are.  Not because of your situation, but because your self talk is stopping you from doing your duty.

As individuals, we need to plan our social responsibility like we plan our work.  There has to be a general policy of ethical values and standards that we want to live by.  Then we have to put a one to two year plan of social responsibility goals that we would like to achieve.  Then, work on weekly goals that get you to what you want to achieve.  Finally, one can manage these CSR activities on the to do list.  The same one used for business tasks.  Make sure some of your social responsibility tasks, take priority over some of the business tasks.  It feels good.  Try it and enjoy being socially responsible!

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A Narcissist Manager’s Guide to the Workplace

Posted by Ammar Mango on October 6, 2013

A Narcissist Manager is someone who believes in nothing but self promotion.  Work comes close second, and people are the lowest on the priority list.  People are almost machines, or better work like machines, as emotions, personal preferences, ambitions, and all such “mushy” stuff are a waste of time, according to the narcissist Manager: “Get the job done, or else.”

The narcissist manager mentality is on the rise.  Yes, it is sad indeed.  However, one can easily be amused by the way of thinking of these managers, as it is amazingly simplified into its core beliefs: No one to be trusted, everyone is selfish, people should be intimidated into work, and yes the most important of all: your employees must fear you so they work properly.

I have met a few of these managers throughout my career.   They are so similar to an astonishing point.   If I was to put their behavior in a user manual, this is what it would look like.  Please note that I do NOT condone this behavior and I definitely discourage it and do not appreciate it.  However, just for fun and also learning what NOT to do, here is the quick guide:

1. Fire anyone you do not like, as soon as they cannot hurt you.  If they cannot be replaced, be nice to them until you can ditch them.

2. How to deal with those who say no, disagree with you, or hint at mistakes you made or are making? Preferably fire them.  If you cannot, then scare them and intimidate them into submission, if you cannot, or they are too strong, be nice to them, make them think you like them, then when the moment is right, make your move and fire them.

3. Sick people, or those you expect to be sick for a while: You guessed it; Fire them, but cover yourself legally, so you do not get sued.  Make up some accusations about their incompetence, mistakes, or anything else so no one knows the real reason you fired them.

4. Family members, friends, friends of friends, or people you need to kiss up to: Hire them.  You cannot have enough of these people.  Actually hire those who talk like you, dress like you, or say they like you.  Why not even hire those who look like you.  That is even better.  Nothing better than seeing good looking people to make one feel good about self.

5. Gossip, lying, manipulating, backstabbing, and hypocrisy, are the tools of the trade, when it comes to business. Encourage them among employees (as long as they are not directed at you) and learn to use them wisely.

6. Truth, honesty, loyalty, friendship, are all words used to manipulate others to believe you and do as you wish.  All are safe tools to use as long as you never really believe or “fall” for them.

7.  Never admit a mistake.  Blame it on someone else, or pretend it was not a mistake to start with.

8. Put down others’ work, then at the right moment put it in a different format and claim it is yours.

9.  When in a team, do the least work, and most of the talking.  Feel free to claim team victory as yours.  It is yours after all: you are the inspired boss.

10.  Attack competitors, peers, and everyone else in your business network, but in a subtle way.  This will keep you shining and above everybody else.

11. When everything fails, blame someone, the weather, the whole team, government, economic conditions, but never assume you had anything to do with it.

12. Emotions, empathy, and feeling for others are for the weak.  This is why you win, and you are superior, because you do not let such foolishness get in your way.

13. If you end up alone and hated, it is only because you are so successful, and beautiful too.  This has got to raise the level of envy of others.  So, consider it a compliment that you have no friends.

14. Some people in your organization stay for a very long time.  These are the keepers.  They figured out how to work with you.  They never leave, they have no ambition, they are willing to keep doing what they are doing for you.  These are the kind of people you need around you.  Welcome hem, keep them, and reward them.

15.  Some people, troublemakers, want to do things differently, have their own ideas, and other blasphemous behavior.  These leave your organization quickly, either fired or run away.  The sooner the better.  Good riddance.

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